Guaranteed-delivery Geographic Routing under Uncertain Node Locations

Stefan Funke, Nikola Milosavljevic

Geographic routing protocols like GOAFR or GPSR rely on \emph{exact} location information at the nodes, as when the greedy routing phase gets stuck at a local minimum, they require, as a fallback, a planar subgraph whose identification, in all existing methods, depends on exact node positions. In practice, however, location information at the network nodes is hardly precise; be it because the employed location hardware, such as GPS, exhibits an inherent measurement imprecision, or because the localization protocols which estimate positions of the network nodes cannot do so without errors. In this paper we propose a novel naming and routing scheme that can handle the uncertainty in location information. It is based on a macroscopic variant of geographic greedy routing, as well as a macroscopic planarization of the communication graph. If an upper bound on the deviation from true node locations is available, our routing protocol guarantees delivery of messages. Due to its macroscopic view, our routing scheme also produces shorter and more load-balanced paths than common geographic routing schemes, in particular in sparsely connected networks or in the presence of obstacles.

to appear in Proc. of 11th IEEE Conference on Computer Communication (INFOCOM) 2007, Anchorage